Diet Quality and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases Among Adolescents from the Public Schools in a City in the Northeast Region of Brazil
Keywords:Diet Quality Index, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Adolescents, Food Intake.
Background: Although clinical manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are observed, usually in the adult stage of life, there is strong evidence that these disorders can begin in adolescence. Few people who get a moderate to high risk for CVD at this stage can reverse this situation as an adult, which makes the monitoring of risk factors important element for detecting predisposition to the development of CVD in this population. Dietary modifications should form the basis for prevention of CVD, may reflect favorable changes in measurable risk factors. Dietary indices, such as the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) has been valid strategies for monitoring the power of a given population, and verification of cause and effect relationships in epidemiological studies
Methods:The present study aimed to analyze the association between quality of diet through the Brazilian Diet Quality Index Revised (BHEI-R) and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in schoolchildren (N=1077) enrolled in the public school system, in the city of JoÃ£o Pessoa, Northeast Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed and socio-demographic data and variables of risk factors for CVD were collected. Food intake was obtained from two 24h food recalls. Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify the variables associated with the BHEI-R (p<0.005).
Results: Lower time spent on sedentary behavior (OR=1.39; 95%CI= 1.03-1.87) and maternal level of education (OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.38-0.81) were associated with a higher BHEI-R score. There was an inadequate intake of â€œwhole fruitsâ€ (1.2 points; SD=2.1), â€œwhole cerealsâ€ (1.3 points; SD=1.6), â€œmilk and dairy productsâ€ (2.0 points; ST=3.0) and foods from the â€œsolid fat and added sugar and alcoholâ€ group (7.9 points; SD=6.3).Conclusions: The importance of providing guidance on the reduction in sedentary behavior and performing actions that promote healthy eating should be emphasized among adolescents.
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