Correlation of Medical Anamnesis with Current Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: A Retrospective Study of Causative and Exacerbating Factors from Homeopathic Point of View


  • Stavroula Nikitopoulou
  • Stefanos Kachrilas
  • Spyros Kyvellos
  • George Papafilippou
  • George Vithoulkas



Chronic diseases, Chronic kidney disease, Pathophysiologic mechanisms, Homeopathy.


Background: Chronic diseases are illnesses or health conditions that are persistent and have long-term effects on the physical status of the human body. The manifestation of a chronic disease is the result of coexistence of multiple chronic diseases. Especially, the chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a representative chronic syndrome of multifactorial affair, characterized by a gradual progression.

Methods: This study considered 81 patients with CKD and investigated the correlation between the disease and the patients' demographics, anamnesis, and clinical presentation, as well as the potential relationship between the disease and other illnesses.

Results: A signifiant number of diseases can lead to the manifestation of CKD, and notably, many of them are idiopathic. However, despite the rapid development in medical science and pharmaceutical technology and a plethora of research trials, there is a lack of ability to identify and analyze the causes and pathophysiologic mechanisms that are responsible for the manifestation of CKD.

Conclusions: This retrospective study investigates the factors that may play a role in the manifestation of CKD through the knowledge and research of both conventional medicine and homeopathy.

Author Biography

George Vithoulkas

Homeopathic Practitioner, Athens, Greece.






Toxicology & Therapeutics