Effects of modified Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy on relaxation, heart rate, blood pressure and flexibility
Keywords:Hydrotherapy, Relaxation, Sensory Deprivation, Women
AbstractBackground: Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) promotes physiological and behavioral changes that reduce the deleterious effects of stress. However, it requires expensive equipment and is accessible to a limited number of professionals and patients. We aimed to evaluate the physiological and behavioral effects of modified REST (mREST) in healthy young women. Method: Twenty-one healthy young women (20-25 yrs) participated. mREST consists of positioning the patient floating in the pool with 32oC for about 15 minutes, for twelve sessions, with blindfolded and wearing earplugs. The evaluation was performed before and after the intervention. The analysis of the state of relaxation was investigated by a questionnaire and the self-reports were categorized. Measures of heart rate and blood pressure were used as indicators of the cardiovascular response. Flexibility, measured by the finger-to-floor test, was used as an indicator of muscle relaxation. Results: Heart rate and blood pressure significantly decreased while flexibility and relaxation increased after the sessions (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Self-reports of relaxation were consistent with the blood pressure measures and indicated that the participants showed states of relaxation associated with the decrease of blood pressure and the increase of flexibility (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion: Healthy women undergoing mREST reported relaxation, with effects on muscular and cardiovascular systems. mREST is a simple, practical and affordable option for therapy in the aquatic environment.
Benson H, Greenwood MM, Klemchuk H. The relaxation response: psychophysiology aspects and clinical applications. Int J Psych Med. 1975; 6(1-2): 87-98.
Kerr K. Relaxation Techniques: A Critical Review. Phys Rehab Med. 2000; 12: 51-89.
Esch T, Fricchine GL, Stefano GB. The therapeutic use of the relaxation response in stress related diseases. Med Sci Monit. 2003; 9(2): RA23-34.
Edebol H, Bood SA, Norlader T. Chronic Whiplash-Associated Disorders and Their Treatment Using Floatation-REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique). Qual Health Res. 2008; 18(4): 480-8.
Greenleaf JE. Physiological responses to prolonged bed rest and fluid immersion in humans: brief review. J Appl Physiol. 1984; 57(3): 619â€“33.
Cunha MG, Caromano FA. Physiological effects of immersion and its relation with sensory deprivation and relaxation in hydrotherapy. Rev Terap Ocupac Univ SÃ£o Paulo. 2006; 17(3): 137-41.
Caromano FA, Ide MR. Movimento na Ã¡gua. Fisioterapia Brasil. 2003; 4(2): 126â€“8.
Hall J, Bisson D, Oâ€™Hare P. The physiology of immersion. Physiother. 1990; 76(9): 517-20.
Likert R. A Technique for the measurement of attitudes. Arch Psychol. 1932; 140:1-55.
Ekedahl H, JÃ¶nsson B, Frobell RB. Fingertip-to-floor test and straight leg raising test: validity, responsiveness, and predictive value in patients with acute/subacute low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012; 93(12): 2210-5.
Bood SA, Sundequist U, Kjellgren A, Norlander T, Nordstrom L, Nordenstrom K, Nordstrom G. Eliciting the relaxation response with the help of floatationâ€“REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) in patients with stress-related ailments. Int J Stress Manag. 2006; 13(2): 154â€“75.
Suedfeld P, Roy C, Landon PB. Restricted environmental stimulation therapy in the treatment of essential hypertension. Behav Res Ther.1982; 20: 533-559.
Olney CM. The effect of therapeutic back massage in hypertensive persons: a preliminary study. Bio Res Nurs. 2005; 7 (2): 98-105.
Dierendonck DV, Nijenhuis JT. Floatation Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy (REST) as a stress-management tool: A meta-analysis. Psychol Health. 2005; 20(3): 405-412.
Bood SA, Sundequist U, Kjellgren A, Nordstrom L, Norlander T. Effects of floatationâ€“REST (Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique) on stress related muscle pain: are 33 floatation sessions more effective than 12 sessions? Social Behav Person. 2007; 35(2): 143â€“56.
Grossman E, Grossman A, Schein MH, Zimlichman R, Gavish B. Breathing-control lowers blood pressure. J Human Hypertension. 2001; 15: 263â€“9.
Oneda B, Ortega K, GusmÃ£o J, AraÃºjo T, Mion D. Sympathetic nerve activity is decreased during device-guided slow breathing. Eur Respir J. 2008; 32: 387â€“92.
Diego MA, Field T. Moderate Pressure Massage Elicits a Parasympathetic Nervous System Response. Int J. Neurosc. 2009; 119: 630-8.
Bernardi L, Porta C, Spicuzza L, Bellwon J, Spadacini G, Frey A, Yeung L, Sanderson J, Pedretti R Tramarin R. Slow breathing increases arterial baroreflex sensitivity in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation. 2002; 105: 143-5.
Moyer C, Rounds J, Hannum J. A Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy Reserch. Psychological Bulletin. 2004; 130 (1): 3â€“18.
Cambron J, Dexheimer J, Coe P. Changes in blood pressure after various forms of therapeutic massage: a preliminary study. J Altern Complem Med. 2006; 12(1): 65-76.
Hernandez-Reif M, Field T, Krasnegor J et al. High blood pressure and associated symptoms were reduced by massage therapy. J Bodywork Mov Ther. 2000; 4(1): 31-8.
Kjellgren A, Lyden F, Norlander T. Sensory isolation in floatation tanks: altered states of consciousness and effects on well-being. The Qual Report. 2008; 13(4): 636-56.
Forgays DJ, Belinson MJ. Is floatation isolation a relaxing environment? J Environ Psychol. 1986; 6: 19-34.
Fine TH, Turner JW. The effect of brief restricted environmental stimulation therapy in the treatment of essential hypertension. Behav Res Ther. 1982; 20: 567-70.
Magnusson SP. Passive properties of human skeletal muscle during stretch maneuvers. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1998; 8: 65-77.
Singh M, Alvarez R, Murakami M. Floatation Tank, 2003. Available from: http://www.chifountain.com/studies_folder/floatationtank.pdf. Access in: 25 set. 2013.
Norlander T, Kjellgren A, Archer T. The experience of floatation-REST as a function of setting and previous experience of altered state of Consciousness. Imagin, Cogn Person. 2001; 20: 161-78.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution LicenseÂ that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open AccessÂ and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).