Characterization of bacterial isolates cultured from the nasopharynx of children with sickle cell disease (SCD)

Authors

  • Kwashie Ajibade Ako-Nai Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Blessing Itohan Ebhodaghe Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Adegoke Samuel Ademola Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Kuti Bankole Peter Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Olakunle O Kassim Howard University,Washington DC, United States

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3823/1698

Keywords:

SCD patients, nasopharyngeal bacterial isolates, Antibiotic resistance, MAR index

Abstract

Background: We characterized bacterial isolates from the nasopharynx of 84 Sickle cell disease patients 78 of whom were HbSS and 6 HbSC aged 4 four months to 15 years at Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesa, southwestern Nigeria between February – September, 2014.

Method:  Sterile cotton-tipped initially dipped into sterile saline thereafter was  introduced into nasopharynx of each patient and  thereafter  applied onto sterile thioglycolate medium and  incubated at 370 C for 24 hr, When growth was noticed,  samples were inoculated onto  enriched, selective and differential bacteriologic media. Bacterial colonies that grew on such media were picked and characterized by gram reaction, cultural, morphologic and biochemical methods.  Antibiotic sensitivity tests were determined by the disc diffusion method. Demographic data relating to severity of SCD were provided.

Results: Altogether, 119 isolates were cultured from the nasopharynx. Gram positive bacteria predominated (65.54%)   and Corynebacterium spp (44.53%) dominated comprising of 19 (35.84%)  Corynebacterium xerosis 11 (20.75%) Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 10(18.86) Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, 8(15.09%) Corynebacterium ulcerans, 3(6.66%) Corynebacterium spp and 2(3.77%) Corynebacterium jeikeium. Other Gram positive rods cultured were Arcanobacterium haemolyticum 6(5%).  Bacillus subtilis was   3 (2.5%), Actinomyces isrealli 3 (2.5%) and Norcadia asteroids 1 (0.84%).  Low frequency of nasopharyngeal colonization recorded for Haemophilus influenzae 4.2%, and S. pneumoniae 2.5% and S. aureus 4(3.36%) and multiresistance was widespread for most isolates.

Conclusion:  Indigenous microflora Corynebacterium spp predominated and low rate of nasopharyngeal colonization with H. influenzae, and S. pneumoniae recorded attributable to prophylactic use of penicillin and vaccines administration probably suppressed growth of organisms   and inevitably increased resistance to many antibiotics.

Author Biographies

Kwashie Ajibade Ako-Nai, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Department of Microbiology, Professor

Blessing Itohan Ebhodaghe, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, Post graduate

Adegoke Samuel Ademola, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, consultant paediatrician

Kuti Bankole Peter, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, Consultant Paediatrician

Olakunle O Kassim, Howard University,Washington DC, United States

Department of Microbiology, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington DC, United States, Professor

References

Adepoju, W. and Onwuzurike, E. (2015). Foundation seeks research into sickle cell disorder. The Nation March, 24 pp47.

Mori, L. A., Netto de Oliveira, L. S., Oliveria, L.S. C., Pimenta, F. C. (2010). Nasopharyngeal Gram-negative bacilli colonization in Brazilian children attending day-care centres. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. Vol 41no1. Doi 10.1590/S1517-83822010000100005.

Okuonghae HO1, Nwankwo MU, Offor EC. (1993) Pattern of bacteraemia in febrile children with sickle cell anaemia. Ann Trop Paediatr. 13(1):55-64.

Sylvia C. Harris, Yvonne Davis, Gang Chen and P. Joan Chesney Najat C. Daw, Judith A. Wilimas, Winfred C. Wang, Gerald J. Presbury, Royce E. Joyner,(1997) Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Children With Sickle Cell Disease Pediatrics :99 (7).DOI: 10.1542/peds.99.4.e

Patricia Belintani Blum Fonseca,, Calil Kairalla Farhat, Regina Célia de Menezes Succi, Antônia Maria de Oliveira Machado, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini Braga.(2013) Penicillin Resistance in Nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniaeamong Children with Sickle Cell DiseaseImmunized with 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine . World Journal of Vaccines 3, 25-31.

Overturf, GD, Powars,D and Baraff ,LJ, (1977). Bacterial meningitis and septicemia in sickle cell disease. Am J Dis Child. 131(7):784-787.

Kwambana BA, Barer MR, Bottomley C, Adegbola RA, Antonio M: Early acquisition and high nasopharyngeal co-colonisation by Streptococcus pneumoniae and three respiratory pathogens amongst Gambian new-borns and infants. BMC Infect Dis 2011, 11:175.

Makani, J, S. F Ofori-Acqua, Nnodu, O, A, Wonkam and K, Ohene- Frempong, (2013). Sickle Cell Disease: New Opportunites and Challenges in Africa. The Scientific World Journal. Vol 2013, article ID 193252.

Bogaert D, De Groot R, Hermans PW: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation: the key to pneumococcal disease. Lancet Infect Dis 2004, 4(3):144-154.

Battersby AJ, Knox-Macaulay HH, Carrol ED: Susceptibility to invasive bacterial infections in children with sickle cell disease. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2010, 55(3):401-406.

Kizito ME, Mworozi E, Ndugwa C, Serjeant GR: Bacteraemia in homozygous sickle cell disease in Africa: is pneumococcal prophylaxis justified? Arch Dis Child 2007, 92(1):21-23.

David P Kateete, Henry Kajumbula, Deogratias H Kaddu-Mulindwa and Augustine K Ssevviri (2012) Nasopharyngeal carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Ugandan children with sickle cell disease. BMC Research Notes 2012, 5:28 doi:10.1186/1756-0500-5-28.

Akuse RM: Variation in the pattern of bacterial infection in patients with sickle cell disease requiring admission. J Trop Pediatr 1996, 42(6):318-323. PubMed Abstract |

Akinyanju O, Johnson AO: Acute illness in Nigerian children with sickle cell anaemia. Ann Trop Paediatr 1987, 7(3):181-186. PubMed Abstract

Oyedeji, G.A.(1985). Socioeconomic and cultural background of hospitalized children in Ilesa. Nig J Paediatr. 13:111-118.

Stegenga, K. A. Ward-Smith, P., Hinds, P. S., Routhieaux, J. A., Woods, G. M. (2004). Quality of life among children with sickle cell disease receiving chronic transfusion therapy. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, vol21, no.4, pp207-213, 2004.

Prasad, R., Hasan, S., Castro, O., Perlin, E., Kim, K. (2003). Long-term outcomes in patients with sickle cell disease and frequent vaso-occlusive crises. American Journal of Medical Sciences. Vol 325, no 3, pp107-109.

Telen, M. J. (2003). Principles and problems of transfusion in sickle cell disease. Seminars in Hematology, vol 38, no 4, pp 315-323.

Ohene-Frempong, K. (2001). Indications for red cell transfusion in sickle cell disease. Seminars in Hematology. Vol 38, no.1, supplement1, pp.5-13.

McCavit ,TL, Quinn, Techasaensiri, C and Rogers, ZR, (2011). J Pediatr.; 1583- 505

Downloads

Published

2015-05-27

Issue

Section

Infectious Diseases