The political economy of ebola virus disease (EVD) in West African countries
Keywords:Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), filoviral hemorrhagic fevers, outbreak, West Africa, natural resource, Political Economy, civil conflicts, ownership, Governance, Guinea,
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) was first reported to have been identified in Africa in 1976 when it occurred in south Sudan and Zaire (now Democratic Republic of Congo). Its first occurrence in West Africa was in a 1994 lone infection of an ethnologist in CÃ´te dâ€™Ivoire but in 2014, there was an outbreak in West Africa stemming from an index case in Guinea. The outbreak is still ongoing. The EVD is one of the filoviral hemorrhagic fevers. This paper examined the political economies in West African nations in relation to the management of their natural resources and to the resultant susceptibility to an infectious disease outbreak. It reviewed the African Development Bank Reports from 2007 to 2011 and also searched Google Scholar database using conflict and natural resource as search terms. The findings from this study showed that abundant natural resources did not translate to improved economic opportunities but usually a downturn in economic resources and poor governance riddled by civil conflicts over the regions of natural resources. The foundational issues in the current outbreak lie in the political economies of the West African countries. The numerous conflicts have left the West African nations susceptible to preventable diseases like EVD. The findings also suggest that changes in climatic conditions around the West African country of Guinea enabled the Ebola virus to come in contact with humans. Further, the author suggests that governments of West African nations should develop a transborder framework for regions around natural resources and those governments should be more transparent with the people they rule. In addition, individuals and communities should take ownership in the prevention and control of EVD.
Key words: Ebola Virus Disease (EVD); filoviral hemorrhagic fevers; outbreak; West Africa; natural resource, Political Economy; civil conflicts; ownership; Governance; Guinea;
Report of a WHO/International Study Team. Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever in Sudan, 1976.
Bull. World Health Organ. 1978, 56, 247.
Report of an International Commission. Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever in Zaire, 1976. Bull. World Health Organ. 1978, 56, 271â€“293.
Gajdusek, D. C. (1962). Virus hemorrhagic fevers: special reference to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (epidemic hemorrhagic fever). The Journal of pediatrics, 60(6), 841-857.
Jahrling, P., Geisbert, T., Johnson, E., Peters, C., Dalgard, D., & Hall, W. (1990). Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA. The lancet, 335(8688), 502-505.
Dalgard, D., Hardy, R., Pearson, S., Pucak, G., Quander, R., Zack, P., . . . Jahrling, P. (1992). Combined simian hemorrhagic fever and Ebola virus infection in cynomolgus monkeys. Laboratory animal science, 42(2), 152.
Le Guenno B, Formenty P, Wyers M, et al. Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola virus. Lancet 1995;345: 1271â€“74.
Martines RB, Ng DL, Greer PW, Rollin PE, Zaki SR. Tissue and cellular tropism, pathology and pathogenesis of Ebola and Marburg viruses. J Pathol. 2015;235(2):153-74.
Negredo, A.; Palacios, G.; VÃ¡zquez-MorÃ³n, S.; GonzÃ¡lez, F.; Dopazo, H.; Molero, F.; Juste, J.; Quetglas, J.; Savji, N.; de la Cruz MartÃnez, M.; et al. Discovery of an ebolavirus-like filovirus in europe. PLoS Pathog. 2011, 7, e1002304.
Towner, J. S., Sealy, T. K., Khristova, M. L., AlbariÃ±o, C. G., Conlan, S., Reeder, S. A., . . . Tappero, J. W. (2008). Newly discovered ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda. PLoS pathogens, 4(11), e1000212.
Paessler S, Walker DH. Pathogenesis of the viral hemorrhagic fevers. Annual review of pathology. 2013;8:411- 40.
Kiley M, Bowen E, Eddy G, IsaÃ¤cson M, Johnson K, McCormick J, et al. Filoviridae: a taxonomic home for Marburg and Ebola viruses? Intervirology. 1982;18(1-2):24-32.
Shuaib, F.; Gunnala, R.; Musa, E.O.; Mahoney, F.J.; Oguntimehin, O.; Nguku, P.M.; Nyanti, S.B.; Knight, N.; Gwarzo, N.S.; Idigbe, O.; et al. Ebola Virus Disease Outbreakâ€”Nigeria, Julyâ€“September 2014. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2014, 63, 867â€“872.
Mirkovic, K.; Thwing, J.; Diack, P.A. Importation and containment of Ebola virus disease-Senegal, August-September 2014. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 2014, 63, 873â€“874.
Baize S, Pannetier D, Oestereich L, Rieger T, Koivogui L, Magassouba NF, et al. Emergence of Zaire Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(15):1418-25.
PRB. Population Reference Bureau 2014 World Population Data Sheet. [cited 2014 December, 28] Available from: http://www.
WHO Malaria World Report; 2013. Nigeria [cited 2014 November 28] Available from: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2013/wmr2013_country_profiles.pdf?ua=1
UNICEF. The State of the Worldâ€™s Childrenâ€™s Report 2015 Statistical Tables. [cited 2015 February, 5] Available from: http://www.data.unicef.org/corecode/uploads/document6/uploaded_pdfs/corecode/SOWC_2015_Summary_and_Tables-final_214.pdf
United Nations. UN List of Least Developed Countries. [cited 2015 February, 5] Available from: http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/cdp/ldc/ldc_list.pdf
OPHI. Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative; How disaggregated metrics help to reduce multidimentional poverty.[cited 2015 February, 5] Available from: http://www.ophi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Global-MPI-highlights-briefing-Jan-2015.pdf
UNDP Human Development Reports. Table 1: Human Development Index and Its
Components [cited 2015 February, 5] Available from: http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-1-human-development-index-and-its-components
African Development Bank African Development Report 2007. Africaâ€™s Natural Resources: The Paradox of Plenty 13:54 Page 96-140 [cited 2015 February, 5] Available from: http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/(E)%20AfricanBank%202007%20Ch4.pdf
Balestri, S.; Maggioni, M.A. Blood diamonds, dirty gold and spatial spill-overs measuring conflict dynamics in West Africa. Peace Econ. Peace Sci. Public Policy 2014, 20, 551â€“564.
BBC. Guinea Turmoil Threatens Mine Deal. [cited 2014 December, 28] Available from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7544046.stm
Ng, S.; Basta, N.E.; Cowling, B.J. Association between temperature, humidity and ebolavirus disease outbreaks in Africa, 1976 to 2014. Euro surveillance: Bulletin EuropÃ©en sur les maladies transmissibles. Eur. Commun. Dis. Bull. 2014, 19, pii=20892.
Bausch, D.G.; Schwarz, L. Outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea: Where ecology meets economy. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2014, 8, e3056.
Auty RM Sustaining Development in Mineral Economies: The Resource Curse Thesis. 1993; London: Routledge.
Time. Brief History;The Resource Curse. [cited 2015 January, 28] Available from: http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1997460,00.html
Sachs JD, Warner AM. The big push, natural resource booms and growth. Journal of development economics. 1999;59(1):43-76.
Olsson O. Conflict diamonds. Journal of Development Economics. 2007;82(2):267-86.
Ross ML. What do we know about natural resources and civil war? Journal of Peace Research. 2004;41(3):337-56.
Adedeji A. Comprehending and Mastering African Conflicts: The Search for sustainable peace and good governance.1999; London: Zed.
Jacobs A. English Fairy Tales; The Story of the Three Little Pigs.pp.68- 72,1890. David Nutt: London [cited 2015 February, 6] Available from: https://archive.org/details/englishfairytal00jacogoog
The Guardian. Risk Unheeded as Guineaâ€™s Villagers Keep on Eating Fruit Bats; Health Workers Struggle to Separate Myth from Reality of Ebola as Residents Say Abandoning Tradition is Out of the Question. [cited 2015 February, 6] Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/aug/04/ebola-risk-guinea-fruit-bats
BBC. Ebola Outbreak: Guinea health team killed. 18 Sept 2014. [cited 2015 February, 6] Available from: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-29256443
Obilade TT. The Political Economy of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD); Taking Individual and Community Ownership in the Prevention and Control of EVD. Healthcare 2015, 3, 36-49; doi:10.3390/healthcare3010036. [cited 2015 February, 6] Available from: http://www.mdpi.com/2227-9032/3/1/36
Maganga, G.D.; Kapetshi, J.; Berthet, N.; Ilunga, B.K.; Kingebeni, P.M.; Mondonge, V.; Mondonge, V.; Muyembe, J.T.; Bertherat, E.; Briand, S.; et al. Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo. N. Engl. J. Med. 2014, 371, 2083â€“2091.
WHO. WHO Declares End of Ebola Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[cited 2015 February, 6] Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2014/drc-ends-ebola/en/
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution LicenseÂ that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open AccessÂ and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).