Co-infection in patients with COVID-19 in Tripoli Northern Lebanon: germs involved and antibiotic sensitivity profile.


  • Moustapha Khodor Laboratory of Nini Hospital
  • Monzer Hamze
  • Hassan Mallat
  • Zahia Chahine
  • George Chalouhi
  • Marcel Achkar
  • Nadim Azar



COVID-19, Co-infection, Antibioresistance, Lebanon


Introduction: A considerable proportion of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acquired bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial co-infection for more informed antimicrobial treatment.

Methods: This retrospective study reviewed electronic medical records of all the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the Northern Lebanon, Nini Hospital between august 2020-september 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients who acquired bacterial infection were enrolled. Demographic, etiology and antimicrobial resistance data of the co-infection were collected.

Results: The rate of infection by Gram-negative bacteria was 61.7%, while the rate of infection by Gram-positive bacteria was 23.4%. Escherichia coli was the dominant species isolated in this study (25.5%), followed by Candida spp (14.9%). With regard to fungal infection, there were 14.9% cases of yeast infection. The respiratory infection was the majority (42.5%), followed by blood infection (32%) and urine infection (25.5%). The analysis of antibiotics sensitivity results showed us that 44.4% of isolated Enterobacteriaceae were resistant to carbapenem, 16.66% were secretors of ESBL. We noted that 27.77% of Enterobacteriaceae were XDR. All isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were resistant to the methicillin.

Conclusion: Bacterial co-infection may occur in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lead to high mortality. Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli, S. maltophilia, and P. aeruginosa were the main bacteria, and the resistance rates of the major isolated bacteria were generally high.

Keywords: COVID-19, co-infection, antibioresistance, Lebanon.


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