The Effect of Vitamin D treatment on COVID 19- Patients, an Inverted Propensity Score Weighting (IPSW), and Inverted Probability of Treatment Weighting (IPTW) Analyzed Study


  • Jamal Wadi Al Ramahi Office 11, The Medical Center, Jordan Hospital and medical Center. 29 Adeeb Wahbeh StreetAmman - Jordan 11118
  • Nour Hasan
  • Amal Matar
  • Ma'en Maher Al-Ali
  • Lara Abdulhadi
  • Dania Abu Kaf
  • Waseem Saadeh
  • Nour Hamdan
  • Hassan AbuKhalaf
  • Mohamed Gharaibeh
  • Hanadi Hamadallah
  • Ala'a Bader
  • Mohammad Atout
  • Sae’ed Moh. Mar’I
  • Tamer Alhamed



Vitamin D and COVID-19, COVID-19 Recovery, Covid-19 Mortality, COVID-19 the need for home oxygen therapy



Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 cholecalciferol) as a treatment for COVID 19 patients is being disputed, and a clear clinical benefit is not being confirmed.


A retrospective evaluation for COVID-19 patients who were treated with various cumulative doses of vitamin D. Data was extracted from the COVID-19 database, it included patients admitted to three hospitals in Amman, Jordan. Characteristics of patients were tabulated and compared for all-cohort, and propensity score index (PSI) adjustment, The comparison was based on two vitamin D strata ((≤ 149,000 i.u. and > 150,000 i.u.). Logistic regression analysis was utilized to predict recovery, the need for oxygen, and all-cause mortality for all-cohort, IPSW, and IPTW patients, based on vitamin D cumulative doses during their hospital stay.


            1131 all-cohort and 768 PSI-adjusted patients were recruited. Except for antibiotics and antivirals, all other characteristics were balanced (P = NS). There were 1017 patients on vitamin D, 847 received cumulative ≤ 149,000 i.u., and 170 patients received cumulative dose ≥ 150,000 i.u. (Range 1000 – 385000). It was demonstrated that escalating cumulative doses of vitamin D did not contribute to the assessed outcomes; all-cohort patients (OR = 1.000, 95% C.I. 1.000 to 1.000), IPSW (OR = 1.000, 95% C.I. 1.000 to 1.000), and the IPTW (OR = 1.000, 95% C.I. 1.000 to 1.000).


            In our patients’ cohorts, we could not demonstrate a beneficial effect for vitamin D therapy in COVID-19 patients for recovery, the need for home oxygen, and all-cause mortality, by hospital discharge.

Author Biographies

Jamal Wadi Al Ramahi , Office 11, The Medical Center, Jordan Hospital and medical Center. 29 Adeeb Wahbeh StreetAmman - Jordan 11118

Adjunct, Assistant Professor of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine. University of Jordan

Chairman, The Infection Prevention and Control Committee. Al Khalidi Hospital and Medical Center.

Nour Hasan

Al Khalidi Hospital, department of pharmacy. Clinical Pharmaist

Amal Matar

Al Khalidi Hospital,  department of pharmacy. Clinical pharmacist

Ma'en Maher Al-Ali

Al Khalidi Hospital, Department of Medicine. Amman, Jordan. 


Lara Abdulhadi

Al Khalidi hospital, department of pharmacy. Clinical Pharmaisty

Dania Abu Kaf

Department of Clinical Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

Waseem Saadeh

Department of Internal Medicine. The Specialty Hospital. Amman, Jordan.

Nour Hamdan

Department of Medicine, The Specialty Hospital. Amman, Jordan.

Hassan AbuKhalaf

Al Khalidi Hospital, Department of Medicine. Amman, Jordan.

Mohamed Gharaibeh

Department of Anesthesia, The Specialty Hospital. Amman, Jordan.

Hanadi Hamadallah

Jordan hospital, Deprtment of Pharmacy. Amman, Jordan.

Ala'a Bader

The Specialty hospital. Department of pharmacy. Clinical pharmacist

Mohammad Atout

Department of Internal Medicine. The Specialty Hospital. Amman, Jordan.

Sae’ed Moh. Mar’I

Department of Internal Medicine. The Specialty Hospital. Amman, Jordan.

Tamer Alhamed

The specialty Hospital. Nursing department. Amman, Jordan.


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