Physico-Chemical and Microbiological Studies on Jordanian Honey and Propolis as Potential Self-Preserving Pharmaceutical Systems
Keywords:Honey, Propolis, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial, Antifungal, Preservative
The aim of this project was to study the physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties of Jordanian honey and propolis in order to determine their potential as pharmaceutical preservation systems. This study undertook a physico-chemical analysis of several Jordanian honeys and one propolis type, in order to evaluate several physico-chemical properties including, pH and free acidity, moisture content, ash content and HydroxyMethylFurfural content in three honey samples, and total flavonoid content in the propolis sample. The antimicrobial activity of honey and propolis samples was then evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Subsequently, Honey 1 (H1) was selected for further study and combined with propolis to test their potential synergistic activity. Finally, a preservative effectiveness test was conducted in order to assess the possibility of using honey and propolis as natural preservatives in aqueous dosage forms, such as syrups. The results of this study showed that all the tested honey samples and propolis possessed significant antimicrobial activity against the standard test microorganisms, and that honey with propolis exhibited synergistic activity that enhanced their antimicrobial activity and resulted in up to 90% reduction in their MIC values. This study also confirmed that honey and propolis could be used as a natural preservative system for pharmaceutical formulae. Our results reveal the possibility of using honey-propolis mixtures as natural preservatives in oral aqueous pharmaceutical dosage forms and other local application products.
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