The Political Economy and Stigmatization of HIV/AIDS in Patients Attending a Clinic in Lagos, Nigeria
Keywords:Political Economy, Lagos, Nigeria, PLWHA, Employment, Workplace, HIV/AIDS, Stigma, socio-demographic, sub-Saharan Africa.
Background: The aim of the study was to highlight the political economy of HIV/AIDS in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) through use of relevant literature and administration of self-administered questionnaires. Thestudy was carried out in the south- western region of Nigeria, using patients attending the HIV/AIDS clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos Nigeria.
Method: The questionnaires were distributed in the HIV/AIDS clinic and respondents were interviewed by the Principal Investigator and medical students. Results were collated and analysed using computer software. Chi Square analysis was used to test for association between categorical variables at a P value of 0.05. Results were presented in tables and charts. Further, the study determined changes if any in the socio- demographic pattern of the patients particularly in marital status, employment status and residential status since diagnosis. In addition, the study sought to determine areas of stigmatization as well as the fraction of monthly income spent on HIV/AIDS care.
Results: Literature showed that employers were not willing to employ a person with HIV/AIDS and that vulnerable employment was the predominant form of employment in sub-Saharan Africa. This was re-affirmed by the study. Thirteen (13%) respondents lost their jobs after diagnosis and about 75 (75.0%) of respondents were in vulnerable employment. Sixty-four (64%) of the respondents were married before diagnosis and 53 (53.0%) were still married after diagnosis, five of the respondentsâ€™ spouses had died, 3 had been divorced, and 4 had been separated from their spouses (P < 0.05). Sixty-one (61.0%) of the respondents got their financial support from their family. Stigmatization increased with the number of people that knew of their diagnosis (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Loss of job occurred in respondents when the employers knew of the diagnosis. The household income spent on HIV/AIDS care ranged from one-third to half of the monthly income. It was recommended that the government provide incentives for employers to hire PLWHA. Health education should target employers. Self-sustaining financing schemes should be developed to help PLWHA.
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