Ascorbic Acid Modulates Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cytogenetic Damages in Sarcoma 180 Cells
Keywords:Antineoplastic, Ascorbic acid, Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Apoptosis, Necrosis.
AbstractCancer is a public health global problem. Cyclophosphamide (CPA) and Doxorubicin (DOX) are used in chemotherapy, especially by generating reactive oxygen species. The clinical use of ascorbic acid during chemotherapy also raises several controversies due to its antagonistic effects on antineoplastic agent. In this sense, this study aims to evaluate the effects of ascorbic acid (2 Âµg/mL) on the modulation of cytogenetic damage induced by CPA (20 Âµg/mL) and DOX (2 Âµg/ mL), as well as their interaction (AC protocol) on Sarcoma 180 tumor cells. Cytogenetic damage classified as apoptosis, necrosis, micronuclei, buds and nucleoplasmic bridges were linked to the CytokinesisBlock Micronucleus Assay application. CPA and DOX induce significant (p<0.05) increases in apoptosis, necrosis and micronuclei in the cell types tested. The damage on Sarcoma 180 cells was modulated by ascorbic acid with percentage modulation in more than 70% of CPA relative to apoptosis and micronuclei, and 32% to necrosis. The damage of DOX has been modulated by 70% to apoptosis, 40% to necrosis, rather than micronuclei, whereas, in AC protocol, modulations were observed by 52% to apoptosis and 32% and 40% to necrosis and micronuclei, respectively. There was no significance in relation to the nuclear buds and nucleoplasmic bridges. In addition, ascorbic acid did not show any effect. These results are other studies, which indicate hazards to chemotherapy effectiveness due to the antioxidant effectsÂ of ascorbic acid in the modulation of oxidative stress to promote major cytogenetic damage that is important to tumor regression.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution LicenseÂ that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open AccessÂ and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).