Entropic Analysis of HRV in Obese Children
Keywords:principal component analysis, electrocardiography, RÃ©nyi entropy, Tsallis entropy, obesity
The aim of the study was to analyze heart rate dynamics in obese children by functional entropic measures of Heart Rate Variability (HRV). HRV is a simple, reliable, cheap and non-invasive measure of autonomic impulses. We applied five technques based on entropy to assess the level of complexity. These were Shannon, Multiscale Tsallis and Multiscale RÃ©nyi entropies. Then, Approximate and Sample entropies. Ninety-four children of mixed gender aged eight to twelve years were divided into two equal groups (n=47) based on body mass index: obese and non-obese weight ranges. HRV was monitored in the dorsal decubitus position for 20 minutes. After Anderson-Darling and Ryan-Joiner tests of normality, the parametric test ANOVA1 was applied for the statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at (p<0.05); so the probability of a type I error was less than 5%. All types of functional entropies were significant at that level with the exception of Sample entropy. Furthermore, for all five measures the chaotic response increased when undergoing change from non-obese to obese. Regarding the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the first two components represent 98.9% of total variance; a steep scree plot. The Multiscale RÃ©nyi (Î±=0.25), Shannon and Multiscale Tsallis (q=0.25) entropies performed simlarly regarding PCA and ANOVA1; whilst the Approximate and Sample entropies were also analogous with respect to these particular statisical tests. The Approximate entropy performed the most strongly with respect to p-value (p=0.0092) by ANOVA1 and PCA. With the exception of Sample entropy the entropic techniques described here were able to significantly quantify the increase in chaotic response when non-obese to obese children were assessed by the HRV.
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