Motor Learning and Virtual Reality in Down Syndrome; a Literature Review
Keywords:Down Syndrome, Virtual Reality, Motor Learning
Â Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and results in a large number of phenotypes including learning difficulties, cardiac defects and distinguishing facial features. The purpose of this study was to analyse research findings about â€œmotor learningâ€ and â€œvirtual realityâ€ in patients with DS. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and BVS. Using key words, we searched for articles that included Down syndrome, virtual reality, and motor learning. Only studies on humans were eligible. The search Â identified seven relevant papers. Most studies showed that individuals with Down syndrome are able to learn new tasks, and that improvements can be enhanced via the use of virtual reality. We conclude that individuals with Down syndrome respond positively and effectively, with improvements in sensory motor control, when stimulated with tasks that are complementary to conventional therapy, including therapy involving virtual reality.
E. Lana-Elola, S.D. Watson-Scales, E.M. Fisher, V.L. Tybulewicz, Down syndrome: searching for the genetic culprits, Dis Model Mech, 4 (2011) 586-595.
N.J. Roizen, Medical care and monitoring for the adolescent with Down syndrome, Adolesc Med, 13 (2002) 345-358, vii.
G.L. Almeida, D.M. Corcos, M.L. Latash, Practice and transfer effects during fast single-joint elbow movements in individuals with Down syndrome, Phys Ther, 74 (1994) 1000-1012; discussion 1012-1006.
R.J. Palisano, S.D. Walter, D.J. Russell, P.L. Rosenbaum, M. Gemus, B.E. Galuppi, L. Cunningham, Gross motor function of children with down syndrome: creation of motor growth curves, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 82 (2001) 494-500.
I.T. Lott, M. Dierssen, Cognitive deficits and associated neurological complications in individuals with Down's syndrome, Lancet Neurol, 9 (2010) 623-633.
S. Chiviacowsky, C. Machado, A.C. Marques, J.F.G. Schild, R. Drews, Motor learning and Down syndrome: effects of reduced relative frequency of knowledge of results, Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano, 15 (2013) 225-232.
L.A. Schmidt, Patient's perception of nurse staffing, Fla Nurse, 53 (2005) 17.
S. Chiviacowsky, G. Wulf, C. Machado, N. Rydberg, Self-controlled feedback enhances learning in adults with Down syndrome, Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy, 16 (2012) 191-196.
G. Bussy, E. Charrin, A. Brun, A. Curie, V. des Portes, Implicit procedural learning in fragile X and Down syndrome, J Intellect Disabil Res, 55 (2011) 521-528.
W.F. Possebom, T.D.d. Silva, A.H.N. RÃ©, T. Massetti, L.Z. BelisÃ¡rio, E. Ulian, Z. Graciani, C.B.d.M. Monteiro, Aprendizagem motora em pessoas com sÃndrome de Down: tarefa de labirinto no computador, 2013, pp. 54-60.
S.D. Ringenbach, G.M. Mulvey, C.C. Chen, M.L. Jung, Unimanual and bimanual continuous movements benefit from visual instructions in persons with Down syndrome, J Mot Behav, 44 (2012) 233-239.
S.V. Adamovich, G.G. Fluet, E. Tunik, A.S. Merians, Sensorimotor training in virtual reality: a review, NeuroRehabilitation, 25 (2009) 29-44.
H. Sveistrup, Motor rehabilitation using virtual reality, J Neuroeng Rehabil, 1 (2004) 10.
A.A. Rizzo, J.G. Buckwalter, U. Neumann, Virtual reality and cognitive rehabilitation: a brief review of the future, The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 12 (1997) 1-15.
D.L. Damiano, S.L. DeJong, A systematic review of the effectiveness of treadmill training and body weight support in pediatric rehabilitation, J Neurol Phys Ther, 33 (2009) 27-44.
T.D. Parsons, A.A. Rizzo, S. Rogers, P. York, Virtual reality in paediatric rehabilitation: a review, Dev Neurorehabil, 12 (2009) 224-238.
L. Snider, A. Majnemer, V. Darsaklis, Virtual reality as a therapeutic modality for children with cerebral palsy, Dev Neurorehabil, 13 (2010) 120-128.
R.F. Sampaio, M.C. Mancini, Estudos de revisÃ£o sistemÃ¡tica: um guia para sÃntese criteriosa da evidÃªncia cientÃfica, Braz. J. Phys. Ther.(Impr.), 11 (2007) 83-89.
C.G. Maher, C. Sherrington, R.D. Herbert, A.M. Moseley, M. Elkins, Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials, Phys Ther, 83 (2003) 713-721.
M.C. Mancini, P. Silva, S.C. GonÃ§alves, S.d.M. Martins, R. Sampaio, ComparaÃ§Ã£o do desempenho funcional de crianÃ§as portadoras de sÃndrome de Down e crianÃ§as com desenvolvimento normal aos 2 e 5 anos de idade, Arq Neuropsiquiatr, 61 (2003) 409-415.
T.D. Sanger, M.R. Delgado, D. Gaebler-Spira, M. Hallett, J.W. Mink, Classification and definition of disorders causing hypertonia in childhood, Pediatrics, 111 (2003) e89-97.
D. Beaton, C. Bombardier, F. Guillemin, M.B. Ferraz, Recommendations for the cross-cultural adaptation of the DASH & QuickDASH outcome measures, Institute for Work & Health, 1 (2007) 1-45.
Y.P. Wuang, C.S. Chiang, C.Y. Su, C.C. Wang, Effectiveness of virtual reality using Wii gaming technology in children with Down syndrome, Res Dev Disabil, 32 (2011) 312-321.
Y. Courbois, E.K. Farran, A. Lemahieu, M. Blades, H. Mengue-Topio, P. Sockeel, Wayfinding behaviour in Down syndrome: a study with virtual environments, Res Dev Disabil, 34 (2013) 1825-1831.
M.L. Latash, Learning motor synergies by persons with Down syndrome, J Intellect Disabil Res, 51 (2007) 962-971.
K. Gardiner, Y. Herault, I.T. Lott, S.E. Antonarakis, R.H. Reeves, M. Dierssen, Down syndrome: from understanding the neurobiology to therapy, J Neurosci, 30 (2010) 14943-14945.
P. Berg, T. Becker, A. Martian, K.D. Primrose, J. Wingen, Motor control outcomes following Nintendo Wii use by a child with Down syndrome, Pediatr Phys Ther, 24 (2012) 78-84.
A. Luke, M. Sutton, D.A. Schoeller, N.J. Roizen, Nutrient intake and obesity in prepubescent children with Down syndrome, J Am Diet Assoc, 96 (1996) 1262-1267.
R.A. Schmidt, C.A. Wrisberg, Aprendizagem e performance motora: uma abordagem da aprendizagem baseada no problema, 2001.
C. Torriani-Pasin, G.M. Bonuzzi, M.A. Soares, G.L. Antunes, G.C. Palma, C.B. Monteiro, L.C. de Abreu, V.E. Valenti, A.P. Junior, R. Wajnsztejn, U.C. Correa, Performance of Down syndrome subjects during a coincident timing task, Int Arch Med, 6 (2013) 15.
C.M. Janelle, D.A. Barba, S.G. Frehlich, L.K. Tennant, J.H. Cauraugh, Maximizing performance feedback effectiveness through videotape replay and a self-controlled learning environment, Res Q Exerc Sport, 68 (1997) 269-279.
G.M. Ferreira, M.R. Albuquerque, N.F.A. AmbrÃ³sio, A.T. Bruzi, L.R. Palhares, Efeitos do conhecimento de resultados autocontrolado na aprendizagem motora.
I.W. Tertuliano, O.P. de Souza JÃºnior, A.S. da Silva Filho, U.C. CorrÃªa, Estrutura de prÃ¡tica e freqÃ¼Ãªncia de" feedback" extrÃnseco na aprendizagem de habilidades motoras, Revista Brasileira de EducaÃ§Ã£o FÃsica e Esporte, 22 (2008) 103-118.
M.K. Holden, T. Dyar, Virtual environment training: a new tool for neurorehabilitation, Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 26 (2002) 62-71.
O. Barzilay, A. Wolf, Adaptive rehabilitation games, J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 23 (2013) 182-189.
M.T. Schultheis, A.A. Rizzo, The application of virtual reality technology in rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Psychology, 46 (2001) 296.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution LicenseÂ that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open AccessÂ and Benefits of Publishing Open Access).