Conquering Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Perpectives and Treatment Options

Authors

  • Anas Rashid Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (HIPS), Hamdard University Islamabad Campus (HUIC), Islamabad http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4644-4729
  • Hamza Rashid Department of Computer Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad. Faculty of Computer Science, Preston University Islamabad Campus, Islamabad.
  • Usamah Rashid Qureshi Department of Business Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad. Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Army Public College of Management and Sciences (APCOMS), Rawalpindi.
  • Aiman Rashid Department of Design and Manufacturing Engineering, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (SMME), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3823/1666

Keywords:

Staphylococcus aureus, ATCC 25923, MRSA, Pakistan, Options in Drug Therapy

Abstract

Exploring optimal cure of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has been consistently challenged by clinical physicians and microbiologist. The fatal bacterial infection, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), shows unique resistance; when selected drugs are tested on human patients. If holistic approach is overlooked, less possibilities are left for medication to curtail this lethal toxicity. If single range of drug treatment is exercised only, the associated complications and consequences of infections may proliferate beyond threshold levels. The research article is an outcome from primary microbial data collection (from urine and blood) in hospital. The focus of experiment is to scrutinize the highest risk vulnerable hospital area including sampled fluid. The preventive and therapeutic measures are discussed along with multiple substitutes of medication with prudent selection to achieve targeted and optimum outcome.

Author Biographies

Anas Rashid, Hamdard Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (HIPS), Hamdard University Islamabad Campus (HUIC), Islamabad

Undergraduate Student

Hamza Rashid, Department of Computer Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad. Faculty of Computer Science, Preston University Islamabad Campus, Islamabad.

Graduate Student

Usamah Rashid Qureshi, Department of Business Studies, Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad. Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Army Public College of Management and Sciences (APCOMS), Rawalpindi.

Post Graduate Stdent

Aiman Rashid, Department of Design and Manufacturing Engineering, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (SMME), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad

Post Graduate Stdent

References

Kim HK, Missiakas D, Schneewind O. Mouse models for infectious diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Immunological Methods. 2014;410:88-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jim.2014.04.007.

Luna CM, Rodríguez-Noriega E, Bavestrello L, Gotuzzo E. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Latin America. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2010;14(Suppl 2):S119-S27. doi: 10.1590/S1413-86702010000800007.

Rashid A, Qureshi UR, Rashid A, Rashid H. Combating MRSA in Pakistan: An Integrated Drug Therapy Approach. American Journal of Life Sciences. 2015;3(2):71-5. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20150302.13.

Planet PJ, LaRussa SJ, Dana A, Smith H, Xu A, Ryan C, et al. Emergence of the Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strain USA300 Coincides with Horizontal Transfer of the Arginine Catabolic Mobile Element and speG-mediated Adaptations for Survival on Skin. mBio. 2013;4(6):e00889-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00889-13.

Chang HR, Chang DH. MRSA and Staphylococcal Infections. Large Print ed. Raleigh, NC, United States: Lulu Press, Inc.; 2006. 81 p.

Rashid A, Rashid A, Rashid H, Qureshi UR. Curbing Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Challanges and Options in Drug Therapy. American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2015;5(1):53-7. doi: 10.5923/j.ajmms.20150501.10.

Bramble M, Morris D, Tolomeo P, Lautenbach E. Potential Role of Pet Animals in Household Transmission of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Narrative Review. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2011;11(6):617–20. doi: 10.1089/vbz.2010.0025. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC3115421.

Stapleton PD, Taylor PW. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: mechanisms and modulation. Science Progress. 2007;85(Pt 1):57-72.

Simor A, Boyd D, Louie L, McGeer A, Mulvey M, Willey B. Characterization and proposed nomenclature of epidemic strains of MRSA in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1999;10(5):333–6. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC3250711.

Miller RR, Price JR, Batty EM, Didelot X, Wyllie D, Golubchik T, et al. Healthcare-associated outbreak of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: role of a cryptic variant of an epidemic clone. The Journal of Hospital Infection. 2014;86(2):83–9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2013.11.007. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC3924019.

Kumari HBV, Nagaraja D, Nagarathna S, Kulkarni GB, Praveen CS, Nadig S, et al. A variant epidemic methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus-15 cavernous sinus thrombosis and meningitis: A rare occurrence with unusual presentation. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2010;28(3):255-7. doi: 10.4103/0255-0857.66492. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC20644319.

Perry JD, Rennison C, Butterworth LA, Hopley ALJ, Gould FK. Evaluation of S. aureus ID, a New Chromogenic Agar Medium for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2003;41(12):5695-8. doi: 10.1128/JCM.41.12.5695–5698.2003. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC309024.

Flayhart D, Lema C, Borek A, Carroll KC. Comparison of the BBL CHROMagar Staph aureus Agar Medium to Conventional Media for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Respiratory Samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2004;42(8):3566–9. doi: 10.1128/JCM.42.8.3566–3569.2004. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC15297498.

Siegrist J. Media for detection of Staphylococcus Aureus: a Spreading Bacteria. AnalytiX [Internet]. February 23, 2015; 10(Article 2):[1-4 pp.]. Available from: http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/technical-documents/articles/analytix/staphylococcus-aureus.html.

Pournajaf A, Ardebili A, Goudarzi L, Khodabandeh M, Narimani T, Abbaszadeh H. PCR-based identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and their antibiotic resistance profiles Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2014;4(Suppl 1):S293-S7. doi: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C423. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC4025288.

Cappuccino J, Sherman N. Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. 10th ed. Boston, MA, United Sates: Pearson - Benjamin Cummings; 2013. 560 p.

Engelkirk PG, Duben-Engelkirk J. Burton's Microbiology for the Health Sciences. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA, United States: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2015. 498 p.

Mimica MJ, Berezin EN, Carvalho RLB, Mimica IM, Mimica LMJ, Sáfadi MAP, et al. Detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pediatric patients: is the cefoxitin disk diffusion test accurate enough? Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2007;11(4):415-7. doi: 10.1590/S1413-86702007000400009.

Ajantha GS, Kulkarni RD, Shetty J, Shubhada C, Jain P. Phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates by using the lower limit of recommended inter-disk distance. Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology. 2008;51(3):376-8. doi: 10.4103/0377-4929.42515. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC18723962.

Rennie RP, Koeth L, Jones RN, Fritsche TR, Knapp CC, Killian SB, et al. Factors Influencing Broth Microdilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Results for Dalbavancin, a New Glycopeptide Agent. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 2007;45(10):3151–4. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02411-06. PubMed Central PMCID: PMC17670919.

Hombach M, Zbinden R, Böttger EC. Standardisation of disk diffusion results for antibiotic susceptibility testing using the sirscan automated zone reader. BMC Microbiology. 2013;13(225):1-8. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-225.

Grindstaff TL, Saliba SA, Mistry DJ, MacKnight JM. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. North American Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2007;2(3):138–46. PubMed Central PMCID: PMCPMC2953299.

Cosgrove SE, Auwaerter PG. Staphylococcus aureus: Johns Hopkins Antibiotic (ABX) Guide; 2013 [February 10, 2015]. Available from: http://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/ub/view/Johns_Hopkins_ABX_Guide/540518/all/Staphylococcus_aureus.

Gupta A, Mahajan S, Sharma R. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extract against Staphylococcus aureus. Biotechnology Reports [Internet]. 2015 Februray 26, 2015. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2215017X15000090.

Kavanaugh NL, Ribbeck K. Selected Antimicrobial Essential Oils Eradicate Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2012;78(11):4057-61. doi: 10.1128/AEM.07499-11. PubMed PMID: PMC3346404.

Halcón L, Milkus K. Staphylococcus aureus and wounds: A review of tea tree oil as a promising antimicrobial. American Journal of Infection Control.32(7):402-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2003.12.008.

Edwards-Jones V, Buck R, Shawcross SG, Dawson MM, Dunn K. The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model. Burns.30(8):772-7. doi: 10.1016/j.burns.2004.06.006.

Downloads

Published

2015-04-05

Issue

Section

Microbiology